Managing a Creative Culture
THOUGHTS FOR MANAGING A CREATIVE CULTURE FROM ED CATMULL’s CREATIVITY INC.
Here are some of the principles we’ve developed over the years to enable and protect a healthy creative culture. I know that when you distill a complex idea into a T-shirt slogan, you risk giving the illusion of understanding – and, in the process, of sapping the idea of its power. An adage worth repeating is also halfway to being irrelevant. You end up with something that is
easy to say but not connected to behavior. But while I have been dismissive of reductive truths throughout this book, I do have a point of view, and I thought it might be helpful to share some of the principles that I hold most dear here with you. The trick is to think of each statement as a starting point, as a prompt toward deeper inquiry, and not as a conclusion.
• Give good idea to a mediocre team, and they will screw it up. Give a mediocre idea to a great team, and they will either fix it or come up with something better. If you get the right team right, chances are that they’ll get the ideas right.
• When looking to hire people, give their potential to grow more weight than their current skill level. What they will be capable of tomorrow is more important than what they can
• Always try to hire people who are smarter than you. Always take a chance on better, even if it seems like a potential threat.
• If there are people in your organization who feel they are not free to suggest ideas, you lose. Do not discriminate ideas from unexpected sources. Inspiration can, and does,
come from anywhere.
• It isn’t enough merely to be open to ideas from others. Engaging the collective brainpower of the people you work with is an active, ongoing process. As a manager you
must coax ideas out of your staff and constantly push them to contribute.
• There are many valid reasons why people aren’t candid with one another in a work environment. Your job is to search for those reasons and then address them.
• Likewise, if someone disagrees with you, there is a reason. Our first job is to understand the reasoning behind their conclusions.
• Further, if there is an organization, there is a reason for it – our job is (a) to find what’s causing it, (b) to understand it, and (c) to try to root it out.
• There is nothing quite as effective, when it comes to shutting down alternative viewpoints, as being convinced you are right.
• In general, people are hesitant to say things that might rock the boat. Braintrust meetings, dailies, postmortems, and Notes Day are all efforts to reinforce that idea that it
is okay to express yourself. All are mechanisms of self-assessment that seek to uncover what’s real.
• If there is more trust in the hallways than in meetings, you have a problem.
• Many managers feel that is they are not notified about problems before others are or if they are surprised in a meeting, then that is a sign of disrespect. Get over it.
• Careful “messaging” to downplay problems makes you appear to be lying, deluded, ignorant, or uncaring. Sharing problems is an act of inclusion that makes employees feel
invested in the larger enterprise.
• The first conclusions we draw from our successes and failures are typically wrong. Measuring the outcome without evaluating the process is deceiving.
• Do not fall for the illusion that by preventing errors, you won’t have errors to fix. The truth is, the cost of preventing errors is often far greater than the cost of fixing them.
• Change and uncertainty are a part of life. Our job is not to resist them but to build the capability to recover when unexpected events occur. If you don’t always try to uncover what is unseen and understand its nature, you will be ill prepared to lead.
• Similarly, it is not the manager’s job to prevent risks. It is the manager’s job to make it safe to take them.
• Failure isn’t a necessary evil. In fact, it isn’t evil at all. It is a necessary consequence of doing something new.
• Trust doesn’t mean that you trust that someone won’t screw up – it means you trust them even when they do screw up.
• The people ultimately responsible for implementing a plan must be empowered to make decisions when things go wrong, even before getting approval. Finding and fixing problems is everybody’s job. Anyone should be able to stop the production line.
• The desire for everything to run smoothly is a false goal – it leads to measuring people by mistakes they make rather than by their ability to solve problems.
• Don’t wait for things to be perfect before you share them with others. Show early and show often. It’ll be pretty when we get there, but it won’t be pretty along the way. And that’s as it should be.
• A company’s communication structure should not mirror its organizational structure. Everybody should be able to talk to anybody.
• Be wary of making too many rules. Rules can simplify life for managers, but they can be demeaning to the 95 percent who behave well. Don’t create rule to rein in the other
5 percent – address abuses of common sense individually. This is more work but ultimately healthier.
• Imposing limits can encourage a creative response. Excellent work can emerge from uncomfortable or seemingly untenable circumstances.
• Engaging with exceptionally hard problems forces us to think differently.
• An organization, as a whole, is more conservative and resistant to change than the individuals who compromise it. Do not assume that general agreement will lead to
change – it takes substantial energy to move a group, even when all are on board.
• The healthiest organizations are made up of departments whose agendas differ but whose goals are interdependent. If one agenda wins, we all lose.
• Our job as managers in creative environments is to protect new ideas from those who don’t understand that in order for greatness to emerge, there must be phases of not-so-
greatness. Protect the future, not the past.
• New crises are not always lamentable – they test and demonstrate a company’s values.
• The process of problem-solving often bonds people together and keeps the culture in the present.
• Excellence, quality and good should be earned words, attributed by others to us, not proclaimed by us about ourselves.
• Do not accidently make stability a goal. Balance is more important than stability.
• Don’t confuse the process with the goal. Working on our process to make them better, easier, and more efficient is an indispensable activity and something we should
continually work – but it is not the goal. Making the product great is the goal.